Table of Contents
TAGUP Team for Facilitators and Change Agents
1. CapacityWare™ Software. Changing an organization significantly is a complex undertaking that takes time and human resources to accomplish. The CapacityWare™ Software that is integral to this change initiative is up to the task of collecting and offering critical information so that Change Agents can effectively "lead, manage, and supervise" the workforce while it provides customer services AND develops and recovers the capacity it needs to grow appropriately.
a. OUTCOME: Access to readily available data that can/does impact capacity development and recovery decisions.
b. METHODS: Periodic scheduled "learn and do" sessions designed to familiarize CapacityWare™ Software users with information that will prompt the application of software features as well as keyboard instructions to master the software capabilities. When feasible, sessions will be teleconferenced by Skype, and video taped and made available to those unable to attend in person.
c. RESOURCES: Installed CapacityWare™ Software, Lesson Plans and Software Feature Instructions, schedule accessibility with time for participation, teleconferencing capability, videographic capability, Internet accessibility, and Facilitation Team. CWTS CWTS2
2. Evaluation Model.The Evaluation Model supports a continuum that spans conditions from pre-change to post change and incorporates Events between the two. Understanding the model will allow users to properly evaluate the programmatic/systemic success under all conditions.
a. OUTCOME: Engage in a timely examination of actions that meet a chain of outcomes beginning with the individual and ending with the customer-base.
b. METHODS: Primary among protocols will be the completion of resident instruction followed by the "live" application of various evaluation applications ranging from simple "event clinic" regimens, to the complex systemic evaluations by gathering data from both those who serve and those being served on a periodic basis. Live applications will require evidence of implementation sufficient that the full range of evaluations have become a vital part of the organization culture.
c. RESOURCES: Schedule, facility, and time set aside for resident instruction (with potential of videographic and teleconferencing options). CapacityWare™ Software installed and used so that tracking and evaluating results becomes a technological norm. Learning will be guided by a fully qualified Facilitation Team. MORE
3. Change Agent Roles. Everyone in an organization has a role to play in a change initiative. Some are primary to success others are ancillary. But if over-the-top-success is to be achieved every workforce member must take part. It is critical for everyone to understand why the change is essential to the organization, who is supposed to be doing what, and when the roles are supposed to engage is critical to achieving the desired results.
a. OUTCOME: Know and effectively engage in interactive change agent roles that result in the desired changes to meet workforce and customer-based needs.
b. METHODS: Material that will identify the RGB-typed roles required for change to happen in the user organizations represented, as well as the slotting of individuals into those roles on an acceptable timeline. An exchange of "live" documentation sufficient as evidence that change agent roles are viable and incumbents have accepted those roles and implementation is scheduled or underway.
c. RESOURCES: Study materials and guidance for learners. Mentors with experience in successfully instituting change agent roles.
4. Capacity versus Capability. When organizations fall short of their objectives, it is most likely that capability and capacity are out of balance. Capability is what the organization delivers to external customers for a price. Capacity is the internal ability to find and fix problems that get in the way of optimizing that delivery. Understanding the difference between the two and balancing the requirements of each is essential to the long-term health of the organization.
a. OUTCOME: Prioritize an effective balance between capability and capacity that delivers stable extra-ordinary external customer-based work while sustaining internal workforce goodwill.
b. METHODS: Study material, available instructional video, and sufficient mentor interaction to sufficiently and effectively bring the learner to a workable understanding of the relationship between capacity activities and capability deliverables. A final step will be the completion of a written paper that chronicles this relationship development.
c. RESOURCES: Study materials, instructional video, and a completed self-examination to acceptable standards. A mentor with a least a minimum of involvement in the learning process after the self examination has been submitted. CvC
5. ProZones. A ProZone is the overlapping space between two or more Venn diagrams within which cultural capacity resides and which define the potential of the relationship. Understanding the potential of a ProZone is important so that cultural capacity can be developed or recovered for the advancement of organizational vision.
b. METHODS: Attend a resident session during which ProZones are fully cultivated and explained, supplemented by study materials and video augmentation. A one-on-one teleconference is not a substitute for any scenario which includes at lease two people interacting in person in addition to a facilitator who may be remotely located.
c. RESOURCES: Study materials, a self-examination, video instructional availability, Internet access, at least one sustained interaction with a facilitator.
6. RGB Technology.The RGB Technology identifies three requisite tendencies that people bring to their work and the implications those tendencies have on the work dynamic so that people and tasks can be combined in an effective ProZone to do more productive work with greater predictability and enhanced synergy.
a. OUTCOME: Engage individual styles as a significant influence multiplier in getting work accomplished.
b. METHODS: There are many layers that develop an understanding of RGB Technology. The first layer is to participate in a 2-hour Foundational RGB Workshop. Although this may be a certification workshop, it may also be presented without certification options. Follow-on study is best accomplished through RGB Advanced Topic Workshops, Residency, or RGB FastTrack Certification. Additional approaches may take a combination of face-to-face learning augmented by self-study and demonstrations to assigned mentors. The best insights are normally gained as RGB Technology is applied in an organization environment with a learning mentor also engaged in the same or similar organization work.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software is an essential tool to complete basic or advanced study in the RGB Technology field. Additional resources include appropriate elements of the RGB Client Library along with special supplements that pertain directly to the work used as a catalyst for learning. The assignment of one or more facilitator/mentors is an essential ingredient to the development of full understanding and application.
7. Organization Transitions. It is realistic to conclude in this day and age that all organizations are in a continuous state of transition. Many transitions are minor, others are catastrophic. Understanding the implications of transition and managing the transition period (especially during periods of overlap) becomes essential to achieve and sustain stability and optimize resources - especially human resources.
a. OUTCOMES: Recognize the impact of change-transition and how to recover from productivity and performance decreases as they occur.
b. METHODS: Any organization transition begins with the removal of a familiar culture - such as the acquisition of new leadership, management, and/or supervision; or the reorganization of key work groups (to name the most frequent examples). Transitions quickly develop a culture of hesitation based on a lack of old culture rules. Productivity plummets while the workforce tries to restore lost relationships. Slowly, culture reforms and productivity picks up, ideally exceeding former levels, but not always. Typical transitions take months or years. Some transitions never regain initial momentum. Transition assistance is a system of periodic measurement immediately followed by an appropriate response. Measurement results are broadly shared and used to create an undercurrent of confidence that recovery is possible and progress is being made toward established outcomes.
c. RESOURCES: Outside facilitation is a must along with a well training and sustained internal cadre of "helpers" that participate from the beginning. CapacityWare™ Software is used to measure and prescribe activities. An initial period of 3 to 6 months is appropriate with regular assessments as to levels and scope of external involvement thereafter.
8. Organization Realignment Model. Organizations are aligned in three connected levels: Work Regimen (normally connected to the position description supplemented with annual performance review documentation), Strategy Bridge, and Beliefs Set (typically evidenced by some wall displays that address vision, values, purpose, and related overarching principles). All three levels must be congruent and reinforcing of the other layers for the organization to perform to "Ideal" standards. Realignment is not always a prelude to restructuring or reorganization rather it documents the results of these efforts. This is not to say that the creation of Realignment documents excludes reorganization options. Understanding this Model allows users to develop optimal performance among disparate work groups and teams.
a. OUTCOME: Influence workforce commitment toward long-term vision by crafting strategies and designing tangible work to get there.
b. METHODS: The Realignment Model creates the skeletal structure for the remainder of the needed systems of muscle, nerves, brain power, joints, etc. that permit an organization to successfully function as a system. The documentation is thus created to enable an understanding of the organizations many functions/tasks and becomes the catalyst for continuous capacity improvement. As with many scientific approaches, first the Realignment Model is used to establish a current status in order to determine prioritized shifts that will be required to bring the organization into alignment with what it ought to be. Using the Model, start anywhere, move to everywhere, examine everything, and leave nothing to chance.
c. RESOURCES: Available organization documents pertaining to internal organization of function and relationships (including position descriptions - actual or templates). CapacityWare™ Software proves valuable as a basis for RGBing the organization (Profiles that include: Individuals, Composites, Comparisons, and MTT). The initial Facilitation Team is best engaged as a short term external resource and shifted to internal teams as they become able and confident.
9. The Cultural Change Cycle - Beliefs, Rules, Evidence Stories (BRES).This model explains how to accelerate the change of organization cultural capacity by adjusting four dynamic elements so that improvement can become deliberate rather than accidental. The whole point of BRES is to alter a fundamental belief system that espouses and practices behaviors that are capable of moving the organization from where it is to where they want to be. The starting and ending points are both Evidence, so information is a critical element of both the underlying problem and the path toward an ultimate solution.
a. OUTCOME: Know and intentionally leverage the evidence needed to martial workforce commitment and LMS credibility.
b. METHODS: Collecting information that surfaces the underlying beliefs of key members of the organization is essential as a first step. Designing a broader data collection system that offers evidence of those beliefs in action offers a firm foundation to begin a transition. Events are designed and implemented to produce new evidence that the transition is underway and that it is working! Stories of progress must be transmitted throughout the workforce by catalysts recruited from each Band within each organization element. As part of the Beliefs Set the transition team establishes a Transitional Beliefs Set as evidence of progress. As the Transitional Beliefs shift, Rules require reinforcement in the organization culture.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software is used to help determine strategies with Individuals, Teams and Work Groups based on Composite Profiles and linked with evidence that would have sufficient credibility to shift beliefs. The external Facilitation Team is retained only as long as needed with steady progress toward an internal cadre of practitioners sufficient to meet organizational goals. BRES
10. Learning Styles and the Adult Learning Model.For any organization to improve, members must "learn." This includes both individual learning, and organizational learning. These perspectives promote both. Applying the full range of these models will consistently enable people to learn and apply what they have learned to improvement initiatives. This model incorporates the (academic) reality that, "knowing better does not translate into doing better." As people are impacted by an experience, learning from that experience causes them to want more of the same, tweak it a bit to make an improvement, or ignore/avoid the experience again.
a. OUTCOME: Understand that dysfunctional learning happens and that positive learning is more difficult when it has to "undo" the dysfunction before it begins to apply a new, better direction.
b. METHODS: The single most important "step" in any experience is to ask the questions during or immediately following the experiential event, "What went well and how can it be improved the next time?" This methodology is a simple "clinic" technique and is the basis for progress as one of the first steps among many potential steps within the Evaluation Model covered separately. This simple ritual, recording the impact of an experience for the purpose of improving capacity is an essential step. Being able to share those results with others who also have an interest in the relationship and the experience or future experiences of the same or similar nature is a prerequisite for organizational learning.
c. RESOURCES: The time and commitment to earnestly take stock of the results of any experience that is likely to be repeated. A "place" to record these reflections and/or learning so that others can find and take them into account is a critical resource - CapacityWare™ Software is the recommended repository. OLC
11. Pinch-Crunch (Planned Renegotiations). In any complex organization potential conflict between people and priorities is a constant distracter. The "pinch" is a minor adverse situation that often gets overlooked (unfortunately). Typically, the "pinch" becomes a "crunch" when it can't be tolerated any longer and must be resolved. Understanding the necessity for and process involved in planned renegotiations restores accountability and stability to an organization that is often riddled with lack of consequences.
a. OUTCOME: Achieve the reversal of a potentially unsatisfactory result that all processes and functions will eventually decay and fail if not corrected in a timely manner.
b. METHODS: Since theory suggests that every process or work regimen will eventually fail it seems only natural to build in a system of detection that will signal this is on a path where failure will occur. A first step is to create a "flow diagram" that permits the identification of points at which failure is likely to occur. Once identified, measures can be installed to trigger Remediative actions, if designed to accommodate these conditions. Installing new processes to overcome deficiencies will potentially provide a rebirth to the life-cycle within which failure is expected to occur.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software will be useful to collect data as a "Program Audit" routine connected with appropriate actions. The external Facilitation Team would be used to help an internal cadre of practitioners perform required monitoring and remediative functions within their capability.
12. Organization Change System - OCS. The ten sequential stages that help organizations change to higher capacity are fully described so that essential steps in the sequence of activity will strengthen overall results. The 10-Stage system of change often progresses within specific cycles of change (sometime annually) so that predictable capacity results are achieved. Understanding the 10-Stages and Multiple Cycles sequence is critical to achieving reliable results.
b. METHODS: Just as change is constant, so too is an organizations response to it: ignore, accommodate or incorporate. By incorporating change into a system that manages the various implications of change within the context of routine cycles the organization has greater influence on outcomes. The ten stages are a systematic annual approach to determining the current status of an organization, determining what changes need to be made to improve workforce capacity, determining what outside influences must be woven into the fabric of the organization's processes and in what manner the integration of change best suits the organization culture, and implementing those changes through a broad cadre of external and internal change agents. Finally, the cycle pauses to determine what worked well and what requires attention/modification to work better in the next cycle. By employing these steps routinely the organization embraces change from both an internal and external necessity to design and implement new ways of doing things as a routine part of organization life. This system is one of the most complex approaches available to the classical organization developer.
c. RESOURCES: The CapacityWare™ Client Library is a foundational technological playbook for external and internal coordinated efforts. Change agent roles call upon everyone in the organization to take on new responsibilities, therefore time and attention are required on a new scale with a realistic return-on-investment target.
13. Smart Tailoring and Banding Technology.Understanding and designing change-leveraging events so that members of an organization can become optimally productive. Understanding the outlook from each Band of workforce population enables change agents to better design and implement reliable measures to overcome deficiencies. The five Bands are: Detached, Ideal, Hopeful, Fragmented, and Disenfranchised.
a. OUTCOME: Recognize and apply development/recovery efforts based on participant realities rather than use a design that groups all participants into a single mold.
b. METHODS: Data is gathered based on vision-based statements constructed by a range of non-supervisory workforce members. These data, depending on their scores, represent the degree to which workforce behaviors match visionary constructs. Each Band population tends to have a unique approach to involvement in workforce problem identification and problem solving that fosters specific organization advantages or disadvantages. Knowing Band characteristics enables the appropriate approach to shifting those populations from less productive to Ideal by matching "movement" strategies to those demographics for whom specific movement would be most appropriate.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software collects and processes Banding survey data and recommended "movement" strategies sufficient to produce improved workforce characteristics. An external Facilitation Team prepares an internal Change Agent Team in the use of the Technology and mentors key players throughout the process.
14. The Work Model.There is a relationship between the five elements of work that enable change agents to more effectively establish priorities to achieve optimum organization results. The Work Model is dependent upon a ProZone within which the five elements reside. RGB Technology is used to "type" participating individuals, tasks, processes, and composite group/organization culture (provider and consumer) for optimum results.
a. OUTCOMES: Select and assign individuals to work-teams based on shared priorities that have a potential of synergy.
b. METHODS: Type all facets of work so that the optimum origin of work can match or exceed the optimum results expected. Shift contributory influences to achieve reliable results based on informed decisions rather than arbitrary decisions. Apply an understanding of this model to the establishment and execution of priorities that range from the urgent to the important. Carefully monitor results to assure on-target performance and productivity norms.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software is used as a calculator and repository of RGB-based results thus permitting the Facilitation Team and internal Change Agents to achieve optimum results. Time is a significant resource: time to design, time and processes to measure, time to adjust all elements of work to coincide with optimum work, workforce, and consumer needs and wants.
15. The Basic Model.Learn to move workforce populations with the requisite cycles of organizational development through four sequential paradigms (view of the world around us). Each paradigm is populated with members of the workforce, often in competition with each other for what they believe is the next best step to achieve their desired outcomes. As change agents develop an appreciation for the model and an understanding of how to "move" these populations from one paradigm to another - effective change happens.
b. METHODS: Determine the organization populations that proportionately occupy each of the four primary paradigms as a foundation for predictable movement through essential change cycles. Design movement strategies for known characteristics of each population. Deliver event-based experiential learning opportunities to specific populations in such a way as to provide maximum accommodations to routine ongoing work. Document relevant information to permit an accurate evaluation of processes engaged, return-on-investment, and shifts so as to achieve and sustain capacity at established levels.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software and RGB-based Technology, experienced external Facilitation Team(s), credentialed internal change agents, time and processes to meet organizational demands. Basic Model
16. Balance Competition for Resources with Collaboration. Everyone acknowledges a strategy for achieving results that benefit them and their organization. Unfortunately, individual strategies are often contrary to the best interests of others upon whom organization success rests. As change agents' work to achieve overall results, they will be most effective if they understand and capitalize on these individual strategies.
a. OUTCOMES: Recognize and adjust strategies to achieve a balance of healthy competition while sustaining consistent collaboration with the application of influence rather than authority at every opportunity.
b. METHODS: Collect data to determine the existing levels of competition for finite resources and the levels of collaboration tendency to achieve high capacity solutions to overarching problems. Make adjustments in behavior to gain a balance in these two attributes. Measure results to determine success and refine deliverables to stay on target.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software is used to collect, analyze, and synthesize data to determine status. The external Facilitation Team in coordination with the internal Change Agent Teams schedule time and attention to achieve measure and deliver remedies. ComCol
17. The Unifying Human Systems Model - UHS.This Model helps the user understand the ten interactive elements of living systems so one can better determine the systemic affect of influences on the system. Within the hierarchy of skills sets (dexterity, interpersonal, "imaginal," and systemic) systemic is the most demanding and often the least developed. Portrayal of organizations as dynamic systems is a new technology threaded through this UHS Model.
b. METHODS: Data is collected and attributed to specific Model elements to create a snapshot of systemic conditions. This snapshot is used by the primary organization development Facilitation Team to design initiatives that include specific events to help the system shift to increasingly more effective levels of capacity. As shifts are made, careful checks on progress help determine the effectiveness of strategies, initiatives, and events implemented to achieve predetermined and subsequent outcomes. Remediative suggestions may be linked to specific UHS elements to foster consistency across complex organization architecture.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software, CapacityWare™ Client Library, QWLC Internet resources, and external Facilitation Team(s) as well as internal Change Agents. Designs, timelines, and time that call for the implementation of specific strategies that activate linked human resources to activities.
18. OCS - Nested Outcomes.Outcomes are spelled out in seven "nested" layers so that each one will reinforce the next. Attempting to change an organization's cultural capacity by focusing on the right outcomes or the right sequence of development and recovery will yield the most desirable results.
a. OUTCOME: Know the reasons WHY doing "change work" is being done at a minimum and acknowledge that there may well be additional reasons.
b. METHODS: At the heart of classical organization development work is a set of core outcomes that all work is designed to achieve. As work is initiated, these are well circulated and discussed with those who will be involved in organizational change efforts. Normally, during Stage-0 Early-on Tag Up Team Decisions, and/or Stage-1 Workforce Orientations or similar events, is the best opportunity to discuss and collect data concerning outcomes. A final list of outcomes needs to be published and linked to every event throughout each cycle.
c. RESOURCES: Literature incorporated into appropriate events initially and sporadically throughout the intervention. Time set aside for reading and discussion.
19. OMR4.Learn how to quickly and confidently plan for improving the human response to change initiatives using twelve interactive elements so that the organizational response to change can be consistent in the midst of chaos. One set (six interactive elements) is a must in every planning effort while the remaining may not be essential in all cases.
b. METHODS: Use OMR as the basis for initial lecturettes at planning sessions or segments. Link the OMR elements to the natural RGB predispositions of planners and the tasks they will be expected to perform throughout the plan creation, plan implementation, and plan evaluation activities.
c. RESOURCES: OMR literature is used as a handout and as a basis for simple or complex planning initiatives. Since the application of the Model relies heavily on the RGB Profile of the users, both Individual and Composite Profiles are an imperative, the use of CapacityWare™ Software will be required. Lecturettes and exercises will require time and the experience of Facilitation Team members as well.
20. Natural Laws and Principles Influencing Models.The natural world offers a variety of laws and principles that govern how conditions unfold toward a resolution. If change agents have an understanding of how these same laws and principles apply to organization development, they are better prepared to design courses of action that take advantage of requisite momentum when possible.
a. OUTCOME: Understand WHY and heed the warnings that some things cannot be ignored because they are important and must be incorporated/accommodated while going through the change process so as to stabilize culture and provide needed "hope" that conditions will improve.
b. METHODS: Brief sidebars during appropriate lecturettes are strategically introduced during event dialog that will provide leverage to some elements of understanding as the situation demands. For example, introducing the fundamental principle of Hubble's Law (in our universe, the farther apart bodies get the faster apart they move) is an easily recognized metaphor for sessions with a theme that includes closing the gap between the leadership suite and the followership to create optimum capacity to find and fix things that sub-optimize performance.
c. RESOURCES: Facilitation Teams that recognize and are able to deliver concepts as conditions suggest their value.
21. Inclusion, Control and Openness (ICO).ICO concepts suggest how to involve people appropriately in cultural change initiatives affecting them by planning three levels of increasing group performance so that individual contributions can be maximized.
a. OUTCOME: Learn how to apply universal and sequential individual/group needs while designing and implementing change in any complex organization.
b. METHODS: Three experiential exercises help participants develop an understanding of how groups form and mature to higher capacity. Each exercise is followed by a period of dialog to surface life experiences (in or out of the work environment) that solidify each phase. With this knowledge fully developed, planners are armed with an ability to help groups transition to increased levels of performance more quickly than might otherwise unfold. Knowledge of group RGB Profiles will significantly help designers create experiences to assist in development.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software, ICO Materials, and an experienced cadre of Facilitators or change agents. Typically the transition time will take as long as 12-hours, but may occur far more quickly.
22. Patterns of Influence Model - VAK.How people store and access their organizational learnings in three universal categories so their best attributes can be marshaled intentionally when and where they are needed. These three primary modalities are: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic.
b. METHODS: Awareness of this technology does little to alter the patterns of individuals as they interact with others. Mastery of these topics, combined with a full understanding of interactive techniques will potentially expedite establishing rapport between people that work together. Misuse of these techniques will diminish results or potentially cause an insurmountable breakdown in what might otherwise be critical relationships.
c. RESOURCES: VAK Materials, a qualified Facilitation Team, and time to complete experiential exercise to learn and hone skills of influence.
23. Scan, Focus, Act, React/Respond. Behavior is observable and is the result of a thinking process. To change behavior, one must understand the thinking that produced the outward and observable behavior. This model helps users understand behavior at a root cause so that appropriate actions can be designed to alter thinking - beliefs and behavior, if possible.
a. OUTCOME: Intentionally apply a natural interactive thinking process to relationships that dramatically improves performance and productivity.
b. METHODS: Using handout materials and associated lecturette options the group engages in four exercises to develop an understanding of the implications of this Model. Part 1 of each exercise focuses on one of the four component element templates. In the application of organization capacity issues Part 2 is used to make the templates "real" based on the current organization situation.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software will assist in linking participant RGB predispositions with Model elements. A qualified Facilitation Team and time is required to fully explore the implications on current conditions. SFARx
24. Triage and the Situation.An organization's leadership, management, and supervision are primarily (but not exclusively) responsible for the conditions that prevail. Conditions follow a specific "cycle" that is measurable and therefore predictable. Understanding this "cycle" affords the user a powerful advantage in adapting the organization thereby shortening dysfunctional portions of the "cycle" and lengthening the more positive periods. The development and maintenance of SCENARIOS enables a ready alternative to arbitrary decision-making. As potential scenarios are encountered, specific pre-existing alternative plans can be "activated" in advance to improve the situation from what might otherwise prevail.
b. METHODS: Assemble a slice-team of subject matter experts from across the organization to create and maintain action-oriented scenarios that, if encountered, can plan to mitigate adverse conditions or take advantage of favorable conditions. Publish and continually refine plans. Engage the organization in periodic "exercises" that would test the validity of the SCENARIOS and follow-on plans. Synchronize plans with RGB-MTT to assure optimum performance under duress.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software, Scenarios Books with related action follow-through plans, time to create and test activation effectiveness.
25. Return-on-Investment.Change is fueled with resources; the focus of which is a combination of people, time, and money. Organizations can expect a return on these investments and can measure to determine the rate of return in concrete terms. With this knowledge, decision-makers can configure strategies to maximize organizational benefit.
b. METHODS: Use the existing financial models to track the current return-on-investment associated with efforts to increase organization capacity. The most popular model uses the gains in capacity associated with payroll expenditures, to determine ROI. Make distribution of periodic financial projections to key personnel in the organization and those who may be critical of potential added expenses involved in the process.
c. RESOURCES: CapacityWare™ Software, information regarding the payroll of those involved in capacity development efforts, and a Facilitation Team with Change Agent involvement. The routines will also involve the amount time and cost of time involved in making these computations.
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Facilitation Teams, Tab 2
August 22, 2017